I. Oral Language and Listening Skills
Listen to and discuss a variety of fiction and non-fiction: stories, biographies, magazines, articles, poems.*
Listen to and follow directions.
Participate in small and large group discussions.
Teachers read to students daily. Listening centers with taped texts. Students read to each other.
Teacher increases number of steps in directions.Provides fun listening activity format to practice listening to and following directions.Students read aloud, tell and retell stories.Skits and plays.Students share reports on topics of interest and engage in book talks Students rhyme through poetry; reading poetry and writing their own to read.
Teacher provides guidance for small and large group discussion on current events, subject area topics, and class experiences.
Teacher utilizes questioning strategies to assess listening comprehension; focus on recall, inference and prediction.
Teacher observation; behavioral contracts; students evaluate their own listening behaviors.
Checks for: fluency, clear meaning, organization of expressed thought.
* Skills Based Scope and Sequence Page 31, Skills 1-5.
II. Reading Skills: Sound, Symbol, Structure Awareness
Continue to develop phonological awareness.Identify syllables in words.Apply use of syllabication to read and spell new unfamiliar words.Phonemic Awareness:Continue to develop phonemic awareness.Blend phonemes (puts sounds together to make a word).Perform more complex phoneme blending. Manipulate sounds in words.Hear and segment initial final and medial phonemes in words.
Recognize word family patterns
Given print materials and verbal direction, students recognize and produce rhyming words. Teacher continues to utilize a variety of rhyming books. Given words orally, students sort rhyming words into families. Teacher draws attention to word boundaries within sentences; i.e., "Count the words in the sentence I say."Explicit instruction in basics of syllabication: each syllable has a vowel, teach four main syllable types (closed, open, silent e, consonant-le).Teacher provides examples of words which fit the syllable types for students to practice reading and spelling.Activities to improve tracking of sounds in words including use of manipulatives to represent number of sounds and what those sounds are randomly in words they hear.Play secret language (Teacher says a word with each sound isolated. Student repeats the word back blended.Gradually increase the number of sounds in the words presented.Say "stray". Say it again without the /r/.Use blocks to segment phonemes in a word, students say sounds represented by the blocks when asked by the teacher.Match and provide examples of words beginning and ending with same sounds including consonant blends, digraphs, and words endings (-tion, -ly, -ment)
Listening activities: Teacher says words with and without same word family patterns. Student identifies words from the same family and supplies another example to fit the pattern.
Phonological Awareness Assessments:
Sawyers, TAAS, Foormans Assessment, YOPP-SINGER Phoneme Segmentation Test, STAHL;
TOPA (Test of Phonological Awareness, Torgeson), LAC (Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization) test.
Informal:Class and individual tests on the knowledge of syllables.
One-on-one assessment of syllable understanding; in addition see tests listed above.
Yopp-Singer Phoneme Assessment; Teacher observation
Assess with Test of Auditory Analysis SkillsInformal:
Phonological awareness tests as listed above.
Understand more complex concepts about print. Understand the differences that exist in the written language structure of stories, poems, books, newspapers, magazines.
Apply punctuation to reading expression.*
Provide examples, compare and discuss written language structures.Provide opportunities for practice through guided and creative writing.
Teacher models reading punctuation for students and provides opportunities for oral and choral reading.
Students answer questions designed to evaluate understanding of written language structures.
Teacher observation of student oral reading.
* Skills Based Scope and Sequence Page 32, Skills 1-3.
Understand sentence structure.
Understand story structure
Learn conventions of grammar.
Automatically read 300 high frequency words
Monitor and correct themselves when reading orally
Activities to teach discrimination between complete and incomplete sentences.Teacher provides examples of and discusses elements of story: characters, plot, theme, setting.Teaches basic grammar concepts i.e., parts of speech. Students isolate parts of speech in text and their own writing.Teacher provides word lists for students to read.Students read high frequency words in stories and other text.
Pair-share read. Students take turns reading aloud. Teacher models, draws attention to cognitive process of self monitoring and correcting.
Observe students use of syntax in conversation.
Informal:Curriculum based measurement of reading abilities.
Regular and frequent data collection of students automaticity with sight words; i.e., sight word lists.
One-on-one read with teacher.
Gray Oral Reading Test
III. Phonics, Decoding/Word Attack
Decoding, Word Analysis Skills
Know all remaining letter sound correspondences.Decode to read unfamiliar vocabulary. Use affixes to help decode unfamiliar words.*
Are familiar with prefixes, suffixes, and word endings.*
Teacher provides explicit instruction with a skills sequence of phonic elements.
Students are given practice with controlled decodable text that presents vocabulary with specific phonic elements presented. Provide spelling and dictation exercises to give students added practice.Activities designed to provide practice with decoding; i.e., Making Words (Cunningham, 1996), Scrabble, Word Sorts (Bear, 1996), present unfamiliar vocabulary form stories for decoding practice.Teacher provides explicit instruction and varied daily practice with controlled vocabulary; i.e., isolated words and words within controlled text which follow the phonic elements which have been introduced.
Teacher follows systematic presentation of affixes to teach recognition and meaning i.e., students add affixes to given words to make new words. Use these words in sentences to demonstrate meaning. Students explore use of affixes at home to compile word lists to share at school.
Curriculum Based Measures.
Teacher listens to and records data on individual students reading skills.
* Skills Based Scope and Sequence Page 41, Skills 7, 8, 12.
Use knowledge of basic syllable types to decode words.
Use graphophonemic (letter/sound), semantic (meaning), and syntactic (language structure, grammar) cues.Read 25 to 35 fiction and nonfiction books from grade level lists.Participate in Silent Sustained Reading.
Use the library.
Students are taught basic syllable types; closed, open, r-controlled, vowel combination, silent-e, and consonant-le. Determine syllable types given vocabulary. Divide words into syllables and color code the syllables according to type.
Model use of cueing systems for students. Remember that students with reading disabilities need to know how to sound out unfamiliar words.Provide a variety of book and other reading choices for students. Provide daily reading opportunities individually, small group, at home, and with the teacher. Discuss the reading materials which the students read through guided discussions. Book talks, library visits, book fairs, favorite author discussions.Teacher provides regularly scheduled silent reading time. Teacher models silent reading.
Provide regular library exposure for students to choose books to read. Instruct students on how to use a library system.
Test students understanding of syllable types through questioning one-on-one.
Listen to students read. Question them on their use of strategies.Check students use of blending skills.Assist students to maintain portfolio or journal of books they have read.
Students are asked to summarize, clarify, predict, to check comprehension and provide group discussion.
Read for meaning.Reread sentences when meaning is not clear.Visualize to increase comprehension.Use reference materials.Discuss underlying theme or message.Distinguish fact from opinion.Distinguish main idea from supporting detail.Question self about nonfiction materials
Read in content areas.
Teacher leads discussion about commonly read books.Teacher guides students to discover their own background knowledge or provides the knowledge prior to reading.Teacher leads class discussion to improve comprehension skills; predicting outcomes, summarizing material; posing questions which connect to the students personal knowledge.Teacher models reflective re-reading. Involves students through discussion of meaning. Students define what word or phrase is causing difficulty with comprehension.Teacher guides student to create images of what they read using structure words for guidance: what, size, color, number, shape, where, movement, mood, background, when, sound, perspective (Bell, 1991).Teach students where to go to find information; i.e., encyclopedia, dictionary, Internet, atlas, etc.Large and small group discussion of theme from literature. Students share through discussion and compare with personal experience.Explicit teaching of fact and opinion. Examples provided for large and small group discussion. Students discuss own opinions given subject. Discuss facts.Teacher provides isolated statements for students to categorize into main idea and supporting detail categories. Rewrite to make a paragraph.Teacher guides questioning. Asks how, why, what-if, questions about nonfiction readings.
Teacher provides opportunity to read math, science, social studies health in classroom and at home, through texts and computer programs.
Teacher observation. Students re-tell stories and illustrate stories in sequence, illustrate stories, respond to comprehension questions; i.e., who, what, where, when, why, how.
Teacher observation during oral reading.
Question students regarding use of available reference materials.
Observation of student responses during discussions.
Direct questioning about fact and opinion.
Listen to and record information on student reading and comprehension of content materials. CBM.
* Skills Based Scope and Sequence Pages 37-39. Page 42, Skills 1-16.
IV. Vocabulary, Spelling, Writing
Develop a rich vocabulary, mostly through reading, and the knowledge to use it through discussion, explanation and practice.Infer meaning from roots and affixes
Learn and use antonyms and synonyms
Teacher directs attention to vocabulary when reading aloud to class. Provides opportunity for students to use newly acquired vocabulary in discussions and writing.Include home as a source of vocabulary enrichment through homework activities. Students share new words with teacher and class. Rewrite words in own sentences to demonstrate meaning.Explicit teaching of roots and how prefixes and suffixes change meaning. Brainstorm activities to create word lists for common words such as good, big.
Encourage use of variety of words in discussion and writing.
Teacher observation; formal language testing; oral vocabulary review.
Revisit vocabulary through periodic checks to check for retention.
Assess knowledge using teacher made tests.
WIAT Written Expression, TOWL-3.
* Skills Based Scope and Sequence (Vocabulary) page 40, skills 1-8.
Late Third Grade:
Correctly spell previously studied words and spelling patterns in independent writing.Preview their written work for correct spelling.
Learn how to spell through:
- Spelling lists based on sound and common parts.Individualized spelling program based on words from students reading and personal writing.
- Presented exception words (words which must be memorized, i.e., sight vocabulary; done, was would ).
Writing:Handwriting skills are age appropriate.Compose a variety of texts.Evidence correct use of grammar in writing; verb tenses, formal language patterns in place of oral language patterns.Writing of composition becomes more complexWrite reports.
Present and discuss writing
Provide opportunity for journal writing, sentence completion activities, response to stories students have heard or read, short answer tests, homework.Teach COPS mnemonic for editing: C= Capitalization, O= Organization, P= Punctuation, S= Spelling. Use references for checking spelling; i.e., spell check, dictionary (book and on CD Rom), word wall, personalized dictionary of spellings.Students practice spelling words daily with a variety of activities; computer, write stories, find words in text, moveable letters. Struggling students need systematic multisensory practice; say it, say letter names while tracing, write it again from memory.Students keep spelling dictionary of words they want to learn how to spell.Teacher provides letter formation instruction for cursive writing.Teacher provides structure for writing through Writers Workshop or other process which includes brainstorming ideas, discussion, pre-write, edit, write, and publish.Writes in a variety of formats including multimedia.Teacher provides direct instruction in use of correct grammar.Students edit sentences for errors in grammar and make appropriate corrections.Students read examples of literature language patterns and incorporate these styles into their own writing; i.e., elaborate descriptions, figurative language.Teacher provides organizational help for students to write reports; Students combine information from many sources in report.
Opportunities for oral presentation are given. Students answer questions posed by teacher and the class.
Informal:Check spellings of target words in students writing. Maintain portfolio of writing samples.One-on-one assessment of use of editing mnemonic.Informal:Pre and post tests. Write words and sentences from dictation.Informal:Keep portfolio of handwriting samples. Observe letter formation used by students.Formal: Writing assessments from WJ-R, WIAT, TOWL.Informal:Portfolios maintained, one-on-one conferences about written work.Informal:Maintain portfolios.
Observation of students information base when responding to questions.