Refers to both prefixes and suffixes.

Quick, sure recognition of words without the need for word analysis.

Base Word
This term is used interchangeably with Root Word. Base words may be free or bound morphemes to which affixes or inflectional endings may be added. For example, tend (a free morpheme, it can stand alone) is the base word in tending and distend. Trieve is a bound morpheme, it cannot stand alone, is the base word in retrieve.

Controlled Text
Connected text such as sentences, paragraphs, or stories which contain a limited number of exception words (words which cannot be sounded out) and mostly words which can be sounded out.

Controlled Vocabulary
A collection of words which have a common phonetic element; i.e., fight, right, might, light.

Curriculum Based Measures (CBM)
Refers to assessment with measures which are derived from curriculum materials.

CVC words
Consonant-Vowel-Consonant pattern of letters represented by many words; i.e., cat, lip, sat.

Exception Words
Words which do not follow phonetic rules; does, could.

Explicit Instruction
Direct teacher interaction with students in which concepts are explained to the student.

Combined letter and sound representation. Graphophonemic cues refer to using combined letters and sounds to decode words.

Implicit Instruction
Implicit instruction is a way of teaching new concepts in which the students must learn from implied information.

Strategies for learning and later retrieval of information.

the smallest meaningful unit in a language. It cannot be divided without loosing its original meaning.

Moveable Letters
Letters which are separate, either written on squares of paper or actual 3 dimensional letters, which the student moves around to make words.

Multisensory Instruction
Simultaneous vision, hearing, and tactile-kinesthetic interaction during instruction. Tracing the letters while seeing and hearing them is the most common example of multisensory instruction.

Onset and Rime
Language terms used to refer to the parts of words that are manipulated when rhyming. The onset is all portions of a syllable that come before the vowel. The rime is the remaining portion of a syllable that includes the vowel and any consonants. For example; in the word ship, the onset is sh- and the rime is -ip.

The minimal speech sounds in a language that differentiate one word form another. The smallest meaningless unit of sound which we use to create speech.

Phonemic Awareness
An awareness of the identity and number of sounds in words. The ability to segment sounds and blend sounds into words.

The system by which single letters and combinations of letters represent sound.

Phonological Awareness
The awareness of boundaries within our language. Rhyming, words within sentences, sounds within words, syllables.

A collection of work samples used to assess growth and improvement.

Information contained in the meaning of words.

The rule system which determined the order of words in phrases and sentences.

Word Families
Groupings of letters, usually consisting of a vowel and a final consonant., that can be used by students to write and read new words. These new words are created through the substitution of initial consonants, consonant clusters, and digraphs. For example; using the word family am, a child can make jam, sham. Word families are also referred to as spelling patterns, phonograms, and grapheme bases.