I. Oral Language and Listening Skills
Listen to and discusses a variety of fiction and non-fiction books and other reading materials.
Listen to and follow directions.
Listen to and recite rhymes; sing songs; tells and re-tells stories.
Teacher leads discussion to create background knowledge prior to listening exercises. Teachers read to students; students read to students; teachers provide taped materials for students to listen to and discuss.
Teacher provides frequent opportunities for students to follow verbal directions.
Teacher utilizes questioning strategies to assess listening comprehension; focus on recall, inference and prediction.
Teacher observation; behavioral contracts; students evaluate their own listening behaviors.
* Skills Based Scope and Sequence Page 19, Skills 3,4,6-8.
II. Reading Skills: Sound, Symbol, Structure Awareness
Maintain phonological awareness of: separate words within sentences; recognize and produce rhyming words. Hear rhyming words from word families; i.e., dog-log-bog and cat-bat-fat.Are aware of syllables within wordsPhonemic Awareness:Identify and isolate first and last sounds (phonemes) in words.Identify and isolate middle sounds (phonemes) in wordsBlends phonemes. Puts sounds together to make a word.Match sounds of words.Blend phonemes (puts sounds together to make a word.
Perform more complex phoneme blending. Manipulate sounds in words.
Teacher plans activities to help students identify and count words within sentences; i.e., Students hear a sentence and one student for each word stands up. They repeat the sentence.Recognize and produce rhyming words both isolated and within print materials. Teacher continues to utilize a variety of rhyming books. Given words orally, students sort rhyming words into familiesTeacher models and students respond to clapping or tapping syllables in multisyllabic words. Students demonstrate understanding of syllabication by counting syllables with blocks.Given pictures or orally presented words students produce first and last sounds.Teacher models and directs students to produce middle sound in given words. Use blocks to segment phonemes in CVC word, students say sounds randomly when asked by the teacher.Students match pictures of words that begin/end/have same middle soundsPlay "secret language" games; i.e., "What word am I saying? /c/l/a/p/"Teacher provides words for students to segment
Say "seat." Say it again without the /t/.
Phonological Awareness Assessments:Informal:Sawyers, TAAS, Foormans Assessment, YOPP-SINGER Phoneme Segmentation Test, STAHL; Formal:
TOPA (Test of Phonological Awareness, Torgeson), LAC (Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization) test.
One-on-one assessment of syllable understanding; in addition, see tests listed above.
One-on-one assessment; See above, especially Torgeson Phonological Awareness Test
Informal: Yopp-Singer Phoneme Assessment; Teacher observation
Assess with Test of Auditory Analysis Skills
Have concept of letter/word directionality.Understand more complex concepts about print; i.e., sentences, paragraphs, chapters; understands the differences that exist in the written language structure of stories, poems, books, newspapers, magazines.*
Oral reading demonstrates understanding of punctuation.*
Multisensory activities led by teacher to build words with moveable letters; students line letters up from left to right.Teacher provides examples, compare and discuss written language structures.Teacher provides opportunities for practice through guided and creative writing.
Teacher provides explicit instruction and models correct use of punctuation through oral reading.
Informal:Does student read, write, manipulate letters in left to right sequence?Teacher observation, maintain portfolios of student work.Students answer questions designed to evaluate understanding of written language structures.
Teacher observation of student oral reading.
*Skills Based Scope and Sequence Page 19, Skills 1-4.
Automatically read 150 high frequency words.*
Recognize word family patterns
Students read provided word lists.Students read high frequency words in stories and other text.
Teacher provides activities for students to build words with onset and rime: i.e., -am, -all, -ack.
Informal:Curriculum based measurement of reading abilities.Regular and frequent data collection of students automaticity with sight words;i.e., sight word lists.
One-on-one assessment of word family understanding.
* Skills Based Scope and Sequence Page 30, Skill h.
III. Phonics, Decoding, Word Attack, Comprehension
Continue to learn letter/sound correspondence through systematic teaching of sound patterns
Use affixes to help decode unfamiliar wordsUse knowledge of basic syllable rules to decode words.Use graphophonemic (letter/sound), semantic (meaning), and syntactic (language structure, grammar) cues.
Read 25 to 35 appropriate reading level books through out the year.
Teacher provides explicit instruction and varied daily practice with controlled vocabulary; i.e., isolated words and words within controlled text that address the phonic elements which have been introduced.Teacher explicitly teaches meaning and recognition of common word beginnings and endings, i.e., un-, pre-, -ing, -ed. Provides practice reading and spelling affixes.Students are taught basic syllable types; closed, open, r-controlled, vowel combination, and how to use them to read and spell words.Model use of cueing systems for students. Remember that students with reading disabilities need to know how to sound out unfamiliar words.
Provide a variety of book and other reading choices for students. Provide daily reading opportunities individually, small group, at home and with the teacher. Discuss the reading materials that the students have read through guided discussions.
Curriculum Based Measures.Teacher listens to and records data on individual students reading skills.Test students understanding of syllable types through questioning one-on-one.
Listen to students read.
Question them on their use of strategies.Check students use of blending skills (word analysis).
Have students maintain a record (portfolio or journal) of the books they have read.
Students: Use the library Provide regular library exposure for students to choose books to read. Instruct students on how to use a library system. Students:
Read for meaning.Reread sentences when meaning is not clear.
Use reference materials.
Teacher led discussion about commonly read books.
Teacher guides students to discover their own background knowledge or provides the knowledge prior to reading.Teacher encourages students to visualize and predict events and outcomes.Teacher models comprehension strategy of re-reading for clearer meaning. Questions students when meaning might be unclear to them.
Teach students where to go to find information; i.e., encyclopedia, dictionary, Internet, atlas, etc.
Teacher observation. Students re-tell stories and illustrate stories in sequence, illustrate stories, respond to comprehension questions; i.e., who, what, where, when, why, how.Formal:Reading InventoriesTeacher observation during oral reading.
Question students regarding use of available reference materials.
* Skills Based Scope and Sequence Page 20 through page 25..
IV. Vocabulary, Spelling Writing
Develop a rich vocabulary and the knowledge to use it through discussion, explanation and practice.*Learn roots and affixes.
Learn and use antonyms and synonyms.*
Teacher directs attention to unfamiliar words and their meanings. Provides opportunity for students to use newly acquired vocabulary in discussions and writing.
Include home as a source of vocabulary through homework activities.Explicit teaching of roots and how prefixes and suffixes change meaning. Brainstorm activities to create word lists for common words such as nice, said.
Encourage use of variety of words in discussion and writing.
Formal: Language testing; oral vocabulary review.
Late Second Grade:
Represent the complete sound of a word when spelling independently
Learn how to spell through:
- Spelling lists based on sound and common parts.Individualized spelling program based on words from students reading and personal writing.
- Presented exception words (words which must be memorized, i.e., sight vocabulary; done, was would )
Correctly spell previously learned words and spelling patterns in own writing.Writing:Handwriting skills are age appropriate.Compose a variety of texts; narratives, retellings, poems, correspondence.Evidence correct use of grammar in writing; verb tenses, formal language patterns in place of oral language patterns.Edit work for punctuation, capitalization, and sentence structure.
Students write reports.
Provide opportunity for journal writing, sentence completion activities, response to stories students have heard or read.
Utilize a variety of activities daily for students to practice spelling words; use computer, write stories, find words in text, moveable letters. Struggling students need systematic multisensory practice; say it, say letter names while tracing, write it again from memory.Students keep spelling dictionary of words they want to learn how to spell.Teacher provides opportunity to write with directions to use specific words (previously learned words).Teacher provides continued handwriting instruction; i.e., letter formation, correct spacing, legible product.Teacher provides structure for writing through Writers Workshop or other process which includes brainstorming ideas, discussion, pre-write, edit, write, and publish.Teacher provides direct instruction in use of correct grammar.Students edit sentences for errors in grammar and make appropriate corrections.Teacher utilizes small group or pairs of students to edit peers writing.Teacher models editing process.
Teacher provides organizational help for student to write reports; schematic webbing, charts of information, categories.
Assess spelling of independent writing samples. Maintain portfolio of writing samples.Pre and post tests. Write words and sentences from dictation.Informal:Check students written work for target words.Informal:Portfolios maintained, one-on-one conferences about written work.Formal: Writing assessments from WJ-R, WIAT, TOWL.Informal:
* Skills Based Scope and Sequence (Vocabulary) Page 18, skills 1-4.